30.2. Writers

A Writer is an object that inherits from Zend_Log_Writer_Abstract. A Writer's responsibility is to record log data to a storage backend.

30.2.1. Writing to Streams

Zend_Log_Writer_Stream sends log data to a PHP stream.

To write log data to the PHP output buffer, use the URL php://output. Alternatively, you can may like to send log data directly to a stream like STDERR (php://stderr).

$writer = new Zend_Log_Writer_Stream('php://output');
$logger = new Zend_Log($writer);

$logger->info('Informational message');


To write data to a file, use one of the Filesystem URLs:

$writer = new Zend_Log_Writer_Stream('/path/to/logfile');
$logger = new Zend_Log($writer);

$logger->info('Informational message');


By default, the stream opens in the append mode ("a"). To open it with a different mode, the Zend_Log_Writer_Stream constructor accepts an optional second parameter for the mode.

The constructor of Zend_Log_Writer_Stream also accepts an existing stream resource:

$stream = @fopen('/path/to/logfile', 'a', false);
if (! $stream) {
    throw new Exception('Failed to open stream');

$writer = new Zend_Log_Writer_Stream($stream);
$logger = new Zend_Log($writer);

$logger->info('Informational message');


You cannot specify the mode for existing stream resources. Doing so causes a Zend_Log_Exception to be thrown.

30.2.2. Writing to Databases

Zend_Log_Writer_Db writes log information to a database table using Zend_Db. The constructor of Zend_Log_Writer_Db receives a Zend_Db_Adapter instance, a table name, and a mapping of database columns to event data items:

$params = array ('host'     => '',
                 'username' => 'malory',
                 'password' => '******',
                 'dbname'   => 'camelot');
$db = Zend_Db::factory('PDO_MYSQL', $params);

$columnMapping = array('lvl' => 'priority', 'msg' => 'message');
$writer = new Zend_Log_Writer_Db($db, 'log_table_name', $columnMapping);

$logger = new Zend_Log($writer);

$logger->info('Informational message');


The example above writes a single row of log data to the database table named log_table_name table. The database column named lvl receives the priority number and the column named msg receives the log message.

30.2.3. Writing to Firebug

Zend_Log_Writer_Firebug sends log data to the Firebug Console.

All data is sent via the Zend_Wildfire_Channel_HttpHeaders component which uses HTTP headers to ensure the page content is not disturbed. Debugging AJAX requests that require clean JSON and XML responses is possible with this approach.


Example 30.1. Logging with Zend_Controller_Front

// Place this in your bootstrap file before dispatching your front controller
$writer = new Zend_Log_Writer_Firebug();
$logger = new Zend_Log($writer);

// Use this in your model, view and controller files
$logger->log('This is a log message!', Zend_Log::INFO);


Example 30.2. Logging without Zend_Controller_Front

$writer = new Zend_Log_Writer_Firebug();
$logger = new Zend_Log($writer);

$request = new Zend_Controller_Request_Http();
$response = new Zend_Controller_Response_Http();
$channel = Zend_Wildfire_Channel_HttpHeaders::getInstance();

// Start output buffering

// Now you can make calls to the logger

$logger->log('This is a log message!', Zend_Log::INFO);

// Flush log data to browser
$response->sendHeaders(); Setting Styles for Priorities

Built-in and user-defined priorities can be styled with the setPriorityStyle() method.

$logger->addPriority('FOO', 8);
$writer->setPriorityStyle(8, 'TRACE');
$logger->foo('Foo Message');


The default style for user-defined priorities can be set with the setDefaultPriorityStyle() method.



The supported styles are as follows:

Table 30.1. Firebug Logging Styles

Style Description
LOG Displays a plain log message
INFO Displays an info log message
WARN Displays a warning log message
ERROR Displays an error log message that increments Firebug's error count
TRACE Displays a log message with an expandable stack trace
EXCEPTION Displays an error long message with an expandable stack trace
TABLE Displays a log message with an expandable table Preparing data for Logging

While any PHP variable can be logged with the built-in priorities, some special formatting is required if using some of the more specialized log styles.

The LOG, INFO, WARN, ERROR and TRACE styles require no special formatting. Exception Logging

To log a Zend_Exception simply pass the exception object to the logger. It does not matter which priority or style you have set as the exception is automatically recognized.

$exception = new Zend_Exception('Test exception');
$logger->err($exception); Table Logging

You can also log data and format it in a table style. Columns are automatically recognized and the first row of data automatically becomes the header.

$writer->setPriorityStyle(8, 'TABLE');
$logger->addPriority('TABLE', 8);

$table = array('Summary line for the table',
                 array('Column 1', 'Column 2'),
                 array('Row 1 c 1',' Row 1 c 2'),
                 array('Row 2 c 1',' Row 2 c 2')


30.2.4. Stubbing Out the Writer

The Zend_Log_Writer_Null is a stub that does not write log data to anything. It is useful for disabling logging or stubbing out logging during tests:

$writer = new Zend_Log_Writer_Null;
$logger = new Zend_Log($writer);

// goes nowhere
$logger->info('Informational message');


30.2.5. Testing with the Mock

The Zend_Log_Writer_Mock is a very simple writer that records the raw data it receives in an array exposed as a public property.

$mock = new Zend_Log_Writer_Mock;
$logger = new Zend_Log($mock);

$logger->info('Informational message');


// Array
// (
//    [timestamp] => 2007-04-06T07:16:37-07:00
//    [message] => Informational message
//    [priority] => 6
//    [priorityName] => INFO
// )


To clear the events logged by the mock, simply set $mock->events = array().

30.2.6. Compositing Writers

There is no composite Writer object. However, a Log instance can write to any number of Writers. To do this, use the addWriter() method:

$writer1 = new Zend_Log_Writer_Stream('/path/to/first/logfile');
$writer2 = new Zend_Log_Writer_Stream('/path/to/second/logfile');

$logger = new Zend_Log();

// goes to both writers
$logger->info('Informational message');